Five whys (or 5 whys) is a technique used to explore the  cause and effect relationships underlying a particular problem.

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A Check Sheet is a structured form for collecting data in real time at the location where the data is generated. This data may be qualitative (subjective or anecdotal) or quantitative (amount or range). Also known as tally sheets, check sheets are used to systematically record data as they happen so patterns and trends can be detected.
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A Survey is an instrument to gather data or information from customers in a structured manner.

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How do you test change in your performance improvement projects? The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) model is a common evidence-based, time-tested model for engaging the team, documenting the process, and identifying the best approach for your organization.

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A Pareto Chart is used to focus improvement efforts on the problems that offer the greatest potential for improvement, and to concentrate efforts on the "vital few" (20%) sources of problems and not be distracted by the "trivial many" (80%).

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Nominal Group Technique is a structured group brainstorming process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making. It is particularly useful around defining consensus among members of a team/group regarding priority or importance of items on a brainstormed list.

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Force Field Analysis is a tool to aid in decision making when many variables are present. It is often used to identify the forces in place that either support a change or work against a change.

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Control Chart is used to monitor, control, and improve process performance over time by studying variation and its source.

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Documenting a workflow, or process mapping, visually describes each step of a process from start to finish. It helps you to understand how the process flows, and how effective it is.

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A Histogram, or Frequency Diagram, is a bar chart that shows the frequency of how often a cause or issue occurs.

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